Horticultural crops as well as forestry crops can be damaged by a large variety of harmful organisms to such an extent that complete crop and yield losses can occur. The spectrum here ranges from weeds, insects and vertebrates to fungi and oomycetes to bacteria or viruses. Plant protection products and active ingredients are subjected to a scientific risk assessment before they can be approved. The testing of active substances, the approval and the placing on the market of plant protection products are regulated at the EU level (Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009) and in the Plant Protection Act. The Institute for Plant Protection in Horticulture and Urban Green evaluates the efficacy of active substances and plant protection products with the aim of ensuring that only effective and plant-compatible products are approved and that the risk of resistance development is minimized.
The Institute contributes to the preparation of European test guidelines for the efficacy range of plant protection products in cooperation with the European member states. In addition, the Institute contributes to the international harmonization of evaluation processes. Among other things, this serves to standardize crop and pest groups in the EU.
Benefits of plant protection products and methods
If the cultivation of a crop is at risk without the use of plant protection products, the Institute may receive a request from the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) to submit a benefit-risk assessment for the plant protection product in question. The Institute then prepares a position statement with regard to the benefits, such as the effect, yield or possible alternatives.
The Institute for Plant Protection in Horticulture and Urban Green evaluates plant protection products in ornamental, medicinal and spice plant cultivation, in vegetable and hop cultivation, and in nursery cultivation for the test area of efficacy in the context of national approval and zonal evaluation. This also includes the preparation of opinions, assessment reports and statements. Within the framework of the EU active substance evaluation, the Institute is involved in the evaluation of the corresponding active substances. Basic substances that are not primarily used for crop protection but are nevertheless useful for crop protection are also evaluated within the framework of an EU approval procedure.
Es kann passieren, dass Schadorganismen, ob Unkräuter, Insekten oder Wirbeltiere, Pilze, Bakterien oder Viren, eine Resistenz gegenüber Pflanzenschutzmitteln entwickeln. Dann wirken die Mittel nicht mehr in gewünschter Form. Besteht eine Resistenzgefährdung, so wird ein Resistenzmanagement erforderlich, für das das Institut im Zulassungsverfahren die Rahmenbedingungen durch Auflagen empfiehlt. Um Resistenzen gegenüber Pflanzenschutzmitteln frühzeitig zu erkennen und möglichst zu vermeiden, werden Strategien und Monitoringsysteme entwickelt.