As a result of technological progress and changing economic conditions, more and more plants serve to produce substances for industrial use. Utilisation as energy plant or as construction material (wood and fibre plants), or the use of plant components like sugar and starch has become quite common nowadays. On the one hand, new applications of plant raw material result from the cultivation of plants not established so far. On the other hand, plants can be used to produce recombinant proteins, which are foreign to the plant in question. Such a use of a plant as a ‘production facility’ is called ‘molecular farming’. This field of research includes our own research projects as well as participation in the activities of the International Society of Plant Molecular Farming.